In-depth

Tests and diagnosis

Cardiac catheterization

Chest X-rays

Echocardiogram

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Treatments and drugs

Heart valve surgery

Minimally invasive heart surgery

Mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement

March 03, 2017
References
  1. Mitral regurgitation. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/valvular-disorders/mitral-regurgitation. Accessed Sept. 23, 2016.
  2. Mitral stenosis. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/valvular-disorders/mitral-stenosis. Accessed Sept. 22, 2016.
  3. What is heart valve disease? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hvd. Accessed Sept. 20, 2016.
  4. Bonow RO, et al., eds. Valvular heart disease. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 16, 2016.
  5. Getting support. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Caregiver/ReachOut/GettingSupport/Getting-Support_UCM_301847_Article.jsp#.WCn5QdgzXIU. Accessed Nov. 4, 2016.
  6. How can I make my lifestyle healthier? American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/ToolsForYourHeartHealth/Answers-by-Heart-Fact-Sheets-Lifestyle-and-Risk-Reduction_UCM_300611_Article.jsp#.WC9socnFjVY. Accessed Nov. 18, 2016.
  7. Nishimura RA, et al. Mitral valve disease — Current management and future challenges. Lancet. 2016;387:1324.
  8. Ruiz CE, et al. Transcatheter therapies for the treatment of valvular and paravalvular regurgitation in acquired and congenital valvular heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015;66:169.
  9. Nishimura RA, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2014;148:e1.
  10. AskMayoExpert. Mitral regurgitation. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
  11. Riggin ER. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 12, 2016.
  12. Taggarse AK, et al. How has robotic repair changed the landscape of mitral valve surgery? Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery. 2015;4:358.
  13. Daniels BK. Echo Information Management System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct 18, 2016.