The best treatment for you depends on the size and stage of cancer, your overall health and your personal preferences.
Treating early-stage melanomas
Treatment for early-stage melanomas usually includes surgery to remove the melanoma. A very thin melanoma may be removed entirely during the biopsy and require no further treatment. Otherwise, your surgeon will remove the cancer as well as a border of normal skin and a layer of tissue beneath the skin. For people with early-stage melanomas, this may be the only treatment needed.
Treating melanomas that have spread beyond the skin
If melanoma has spread beyond the skin, treatment options may include:
April 15, 2014
- Surgery to remove affected lymph nodes. If melanoma has spread to nearby lymph nodes, your surgeon may remove the affected nodes. Additional treatments before or after surgery also may be recommended.
Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be given intravenously, in pill form or both so that it travels throughout your body.
Chemotherapy can also be given in a vein in your arm or leg in a procedure called isolated limb perfusion. During this procedure, blood in your arm or leg isn't allowed to travel to other areas of your body for a short time so that the chemotherapy drugs travel directly to the area around the melanoma and don't affect other parts of your body.
- Radiation therapy. This treatment uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be recommended after surgery to remove the lymph nodes. It's sometimes used to help relieve symptoms of melanoma that has spread to another area of the body.
Biological therapy. Biological therapy boosts your immune system to help your body fight cancer. These treatments are made of substances produced by the body or similar substances produced in a laboratory. Side effects of these treatments are similar to those of the flu, including chills, fatigue, fever, headache and muscle aches.
Biological therapies used to treat melanoma include interferon and interleukin-2. Ipilimumab (Yervoy) is another drug that uses your immune system to fight melanoma. Ipilimumab is used to treat advanced melanoma that has spread beyond its original location.
Targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses medications designed to target specific vulnerabilities in cancer cells.
Vemurafenib (Zelboraf) and dabrafenib (Tafinlar) are targeted therapy drugs approved to treat advanced melanoma that can't be treated with surgery or melanoma that has spread through the body. The medications are only effective in treating melanomas that have a certain genetic mutation. Cells from your melanoma can be tested to see whether these medications may help you.
- What you need to know about melanoma and other skin cancers. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/skin. Accessed Nov. 6, 2013.
- Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 6, 2013.
- Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy. 5th ed. Edinburgh, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 6, 2013.
- Tafinlar (prescribing information). Research Triangle Park, N.C.: GlaxoSmithKline; 2013. http://www.tafinlar.com. Accessed Nov. 8, 2013.
- Yervoy (prescribing information). Princeton, N.J.: Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; 2013. http://www.yervoy.com. Accessed Nov. 8, 2013.
- Intraocular (eye) melanoma treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/intraocularmelanoma/patient. Accessed Nov. 6, 2013.
- Smith RA, et al. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening. CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2013;63:87.
- Skin examinations. SkinCancerNet. http://www.skincarephysicians.com/skincancernet/skin_examinations.html. Accessed Nov. 6, 2013.
- Preventive services for adults. Bloomington, Minn.: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. https://www.icsi.org/guidelines__more/catalog_guidelines_and_more/catalog_guidelines/catalog_prevention__screening_guidelines/preventive_services_for_adults. Accessed Nov. 6, 2013.
- Zelboraf (prescribing information). South San Francisco, Calif.: Genentech Inc.; 2013. http://www.zelboraf.com. Accessed Nov. 8, 2013.
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for skin cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2009;150:188.
- Melanoma. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed Nov. 6, 2013.
- Reed KB, et al. Increasing incidence of melanoma among young adults: An epidemiological study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2012;87:328.
- Golden AK. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 2, 2013.
- Gibson LE (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 12, 2013.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.