Diagnosis

Your doctor will conduct a physical exam during which he or she will note whether your sexual development, such as your pubic hair, muscle mass and size of your testes, is consistent with your age. Your doctor may test your blood level of testosterone if you have any of the signs or symptoms of hypogonadism.

Early detection in boys can help prevent problems from delayed puberty. Early diagnosis and treatment in men offer better protection against osteoporosis and other related conditions.

Doctors base a diagnosis of hypogonadism on symptoms and results of blood tests that measure testosterone levels. Because testosterone levels vary and are generally highest in the morning, blood testing is usually done early in the day, before 10 a.m.

If tests confirm you have low testosterone, further testing can determine if a testicular disorder or a pituitary abnormality is the cause. Based on specific signs and symptoms, additional studies can pinpoint the cause. These studies may include:

  • Hormone testing
  • Semen analysis
  • Pituitary imaging
  • Genetic studies
  • Testicular biopsy

Testosterone testing also plays an important role in managing hypogonadism. This helps your doctor determine the right dosage of medication, both initially and over time.

Treatment

Treatment for adults

Treatment for male hypogonadism depends on the cause and whether you're concerned about fertility.

  • Hormone replacement. For hypogonadism caused by testicular failure, doctors use male hormone replacement therapy (testosterone replacement therapy, or TRT). TRT can restore muscle strength and prevent bone loss. In addition, men receiving TRT may experience an increase in energy, sex drive, erectile function and sense of well-being.

    If a pituitary problem is the cause, pituitary hormones may stimulate sperm production and restore fertility. Testosterone replacement therapy can be used if fertility isn't an issue. A pituitary tumor may require surgical removal, medication, radiation or the replacement of other hormones.

  • Assisted reproduction. Although there's often no effective treatment to restore fertility in a man with primary hypogonadism, assisted reproductive technology may be helpful. This technology covers a variety of techniques designed to help couples who have been unsuccessful in achieving conception.

Treatment for boys

In boys, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can stimulate puberty and the development of secondary sex characteristics, such as increased muscle mass, beard and pubic hair growth, and growth of the penis. Pituitary hormones may be used to stimulate testicle growth. An initial low dose of testosterone with gradual increases may help to avoid adverse effects and more closely mimic the slow increase in testosterone that occurs during puberty.

Types of testosterone replacement therapy

Several testosterone delivery methods exist. Choosing a specific therapy depends on your preference of a particular delivery system, the side effects and the cost. Methods include:

  • Injection. Testosterone injections (testosterone cypionate, testosterone enanthate) are safe and effective. Injections are given in a muscle. Your symptoms might fluctuate between doses depending on the frequency of injections.

    You or a family member can learn to give TRT injections at home. If you're uncomfortable giving yourself injections, a nurse or doctor can give the injections.

    Testosterone undecanoate (Aveed), an injection recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration, is injected less frequently but must be administered by a health care provider and can have serious side effects.

  • Patch. A patch containing testosterone (Androderm) is applied each night to your back, abdomen, upper arm or thigh. The site of the application is rotated to maintain seven-day intervals between applications to the same site, to lessen skin reactions.
  • Gel. There are several gel preparations available with different ways of applying them. Depending on the brand, you either rub testosterone gel into your skin on your upper arm or shoulder (AndroGel, Testim, Vogelxo), apply with an applicator under each armpit (Axiron) or pump on your front and inner thigh (Fortesta).

    As the gel dries, your body absorbs testosterone through your skin. Gel application of testosterone replacement therapy appears to cause fewer skin reactions than patches do. Don't shower or bathe for several hours after a gel application, to be sure it gets absorbed.

    A potential side effect of the gel is the possibility of transferring the medication to another person. Avoid skin-to-skin contact until the gel is completely dry or cover the area after an application.

  • Gum and cheek (buccal cavity). A small putty-like substance, gum and cheek testosterone replacement (Striant) delivers testosterone through the natural depression above your top teeth where your gum meets your upper lip (buccal cavity). This product quickly sticks to your gumline and allows testosterone to be absorbed into your bloodstream.
  • Nasal. Testosterone can be pumped into the nostrils as a gel. This option reduces the risk that medication will be transferred to another person through skin contact. Nasal-delivered testosterone must be applied twice in each nostril, three times daily, which may be more inconvenient than other delivery methods.
  • Implantable pellets. Testosterone-containing pellets (Testopel) are surgically implanted under the skin every three to six months.

Oral testosterone isn't recommended for long-term hormone replacement because it might cause liver problems.

Testosterone therapy carries various risks, including contributing to sleep apnea, stimulating noncancerous growth of the prostate, enlarging breasts, limiting sperm production, stimulating growth of existing prostate cancer and blood clots forming in the veins. Recent research also suggests testosterone therapy might increase your risk of a heart attack.

Coping and support

  • Prevent osteoporosis. If hypogonadism occurs during adulthood, make lifestyle and dietary changes to prevent osteoporosis. Regular exercise and adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D to maintain bone strength are important to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. The Institute of Medicine recommends 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium and 600 international units (IUs) of vitamin D a day for men ages 19 to 70. That recommendation increases to 1,200 mg of calcium and 800 IUs of vitamin D a day for men age 71 and older. Talk to your doctor about dietary guidelines that are appropriate for you.
  • Learn about erectile dysfunction or infertility. The conditions caused by hypogonadism can cause psychological and relationship problems. Know what to expect from these conditions and what to do if new or uncomfortable feelings develop between you and your partner.
  • Reduce stress. Talk with your doctor about how you can reduce the anxiety and stress that often accompany these conditions. Many men benefit from psychological or family counseling.

    Support groups can help people with hypogonadism and related conditions cope with similar situations and challenges. Helping your family understand the diagnosis of hypogonadism also is important.

  • Allow time to adjust. Adolescents with hypogonadism may feel as if they don't fit in. Testosterone replacement therapy will trigger puberty. When given at a slow pace that allows time for adjustment to physical changes and new feelings, the therapy decreases the chance of social or emotional problems.

Preparing for your appointment

Although you're likely to start by seeing your family doctor or general practitioner, you may need to consult a doctor who specializes in the hormone-producing glands (endocrinologist). If your primary care doctor suspects you have male hypogonadism, he or she may refer you to an endocrinologist. Or, you can ask for a referral.

Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses, recent life changes, and history of childhood illnesses or surgeries.
  • Make a list of all medications, as well as any vitamins or supplements, that you're taking.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions for your doctor will help you make the most of your time together. For male hypogonadism, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?
  • Are there other possible causes for my symptoms?
  • What kinds of tests do I need? Do these tests require any special preparation?
  • Is my condition likely temporary or chronic?
  • What treatments are available?
  • What are the side effects of each treatment?
  • What treatment do you feel would be best for me?
  • What are the alternatives to the approach that you're suggesting?
  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • When did you begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
  • When did you begin puberty? Did it seem to be earlier or later than your peers?
  • Did you have any growth problems as a child or adolescent?
  • Have you experienced any testicular trauma?
  • What about head trauma?
  • Did you have the mumps as a child or teen? Do you recall if you felt pain in your testicles while you had the mumps?
  • Did you have undescended testicles as a baby?
  • Did you have surgery for a groin hernia or genital surgery as a child?