Kidney stones often have no definite, single cause, although several factors may increase your risk.
Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid — than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form.
Types of kidney stones
Knowing the type of kidney stone helps determine the cause and may give clues on how to reduce your risk of getting more kidney stones. Types of kidney stones include:
Feb. 26, 2015
- Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in food. Some fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate levels. Your liver also produces oxalate. Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine. Calcium stones may also occur in the form of calcium phosphate.
- Struvite stones. Struvite stones form in response to an infection, such as a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
- Uric acid stones. Uric acid stones can form in people who don't drink enough fluids or who lose too much fluid, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those who have gout. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
- Cystine stones. These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of certain amino acids (cystinuria).
- Other stones. Other, rarer types of kidney stones also can occur.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Kidney stones in adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults/index.htm. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Diet for kidney stone prevention. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/KUDiseases/pubs/kidneystonediet/index.aspx. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Rakel D. Integrative Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Curhan GC, et al. Diagnosis and acute management of suspected nephrolithiasis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Preminger GM, et al. The first kidney stone and asymptomatic nephrolithiasis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Humphreys MR (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Phoenix/Scottsdale, Ariz. Jan. 21, 2015.
- Anderson CF (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 16, 2015.
- Wein AJ, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Signs and symptoms of parathyroid disease. The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons. http://endocrinediseases.org/parathyroid/symptoms_kidney_stones.shtml. Accessed Jan. 15, 2015.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 8, 2014.
- Kidney stone treatment: Shock wave lithotripsy. National Kidney Foundation. https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneystones_ShockWave. Accessed Feb. 5, 2015.