In-depth

Lifestyle and home remedies

Meditation

Symptoms

Fatigue

Unexplained weight loss

Tests and diagnosis

Computerized tomography (CT) urogram

CT scan

MRI

Ultrasound

Urinalysis

Treatments and drugs

Ablation therapy

Nephrectomy (kidney removal)

Radiation therapy

Aug. 15, 2017
References
  1. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2017: Kidney cancer. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 2016.
  2. Atkins MG. Clinical manifestations, evaluation, and staging of renal cell carcinoma. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017.
  3. American Cancer Society. What is kidney cancer? https://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidney-cancer/about/what-is-kidney-cancer.html. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017.
  4. American Cancer Society. Causes, risk factors, and prevention. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidney-cancer/causes-risks-prevention.html. Accessed Feb 8, 2017.
  5. Ho TH, et al. Genetic kidney cancer syndromes. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 2014;12:1347.
  6. Fay AP, et al. Whole-exome sequencing in two extreme phenotypes of response to VEGF-targeted therapies in patients with metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 2016;14:820.
  7. Drugs approved for kidney (renal cell) cancer. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/kidney. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017.
  8. Kardos SV, et al. Association of type of renal surgery and access to robotic technology for kidney cancer: Results from a population-based cohort. BJU International. 2014;114:549.
  9. George S, et al. Safety and efficacy of nivolumab in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated beyond progression: A subgroup analysis of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Oncology. 2016;2:1179.
  10. Atkins MG. Overview of the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017.
  11. American Cancer Society. What are the key statistics about kidney cancer? https://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidney-cancer/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017.
  12. American Cancer Society. Kidney cancer: Early detection, diagnosis, and staging. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidney-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging.html. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017.
  13. American Cancer Society. Treating kidney cancer. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidney-cancer/treating.html. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017.
  14. Ho, TH (expert answer). Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Ariz. Feb. 11, 2017.
  15. National Institutes of Health. NIH clinical research trials and you. https://www.nih.gov/health-information/nih-clinical-research-trials-you. Accessed March 13, 2017.
  16. Leibovich, BC (expert answer). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 30, 2017.
  17. Richie JP, et al. Role of surgery in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 16, 2017.