Find out how acupuncture works, who should avoid it and what conditions it can treat.
During cystoscopy, your doctor uses a special tool to look inside your bladder for abnormalities.
Frequent urination, the need to urinate more often than usual, can indicate several disorders of the urinary tract.
A pelvic exam may be done as a part of a routine checkup to evaluate your gynecologic health or to help diagnose a medical condition.
Pelvic pain: Symptom — Overview covers definition and causes of pelvic pain.
Urinalysis can be used to assess your overall health, detect a wide range of disorders, or monitor a medical condition or treatment.
Jan. 02, 2014
- Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/interstitialcystitis/. Accessed July 17, 2013.
- Clemens JQ. Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 17, 2013.
- Interstitial cystitis. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary_disorders/voiding_disorders/interstitial_cystitis.html. Accessed July 17, 2013.
- Wein AJ, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 1, 2013.
- Clemens JQ. Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 17, 2013.
- Diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Linthicum, Md.: American Urological Association. http://www.auanet.org/education/guidelines/ic-bladder-pain-syndrome.cfm. Accessed Aug. 1, 2013.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed Aug. 1, 2013.
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