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Nov. 01, 2016
References
  1. Baskin LS. Hypospadias. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 14, 2016.
  2. Kliegman RM, et al. Anomalies of the penis and urethra. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 14, 2016.
  3. Epispadias and hypospadias. American Urological Association. https://www.auanet.org/education/modules/pathology/penis-defects/epispadias-hypospadias.cfm. Accessed Aug. 14, 2016.
  4. Facts about hypospadias. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/hypospadias.html. Accessed Aug. 14, 2016.
  5. Bouty A, et al. The genetic and environmental factors underlying hypospadias. Sexual Development. 2015;9:239.
  6. Riggin EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 26, 2016.
  7. Granberg CF (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 28, 2016.