Though the cause of hypospadias is unknown, both environmental and genetic factors have been associated with the condition, including:
Oct. 01, 2013
- Family history. This condition is more common in infants with a family history of hypospadias.
- Maternal age over 40. Some research suggests that there may be an increased risk of hypospadias in infant males born to women of an advanced age.
- Exposure to smoking and chemicals. There is some speculation about an association between a mother's exposure to pesticides and hypospadias, but further studies are needed to confirm this.
- Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 28, 2013.
- Hypospadias. American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=130&display=1. Accessed July 28, 2013.
- Baskin LS. Hypospadia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 28, 2013.
- Carmichael SL, et al. Environmental and genetic contributors to hypospadias: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. Birth Defects Research (Part A). 2012;94:499.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 11, 2013.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 15, 2013.