Hypospadias is present at birth (congenital). The exact reason this defect occurs is unknown. Sometimes hypospadias is inherited.
As the penis develops in a male fetus, certain hormones stimulate the formation of the urethra and foreskin. Hypospadias results when a malfunction occurs in the action of these hormones, causing the urethra to develop abnormally.
Oct. 01, 2013
- Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 28, 2013.
- Hypospadias. American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=130&display=1. Accessed July 28, 2013.
- Baskin LS. Hypospadia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 28, 2013.
- Carmichael SL, et al. Environmental and genetic contributors to hypospadias: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. Birth Defects Research (Part A). 2012;94:499.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 11, 2013.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 15, 2013.
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