The following factors may increase your risk of hyponatremia:

  • Age. Low blood sodium is more common in older adults. Contributing factors include age-related changes and a greater likelihood of developing a chronic disease that affects your body's sodium balance.
  • Certain drugs. Medications that increase your risk of hyponatremia include thiazide diuretics as well as some antidepressants and pain medications that cause you to urinate or perspire more than usual. In addition, the recreational drug Ecstasy has been linked to fatal cases of hyponatremia.
  • Conditions that decrease your body's water excretion. Medical conditions that may increase your risk of hyponatremia include kidney disease, syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) and heart failure, among others.
  • Diet. You may be at an increased risk of hyponatremia if you are following a low-sodium diet.
  • Intensive physical activities. People who drink too much water while taking part in marathons, ultramarathons, triathlons and other long-distance, high-intensity activities are at an increased risk of hyponatremia.
  • Climate. New exposure to hot weather can increase the amount of sodium you lose through sweating during exercise.
Jul. 14, 2011