The following factors may increase your risk of hyponatremia:
May 28, 2014
- Age. Older adults may have more contributing factors for hyponatremia, including age-related changes, taking certain medications and a greater likelihood of developing a chronic disease that alters the body's sodium balance.
- Certain drugs. Medications that increase your risk of hyponatremia include thiazide diuretics as well as some antidepressants and pain medications. In addition, the recreational drug Ecstasy has been linked to fatal cases of hyponatremia.
- Conditions that decrease your body's water excretion. Medical conditions that may increase your risk of hyponatremia include kidney disease, syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) and heart failure, among others.
- Intensive physical activities. People who drink too much water while taking part in marathons, ultramarathons, triathlons and other long-distance, high-intensity activities are at an increased risk of hyponatremia.
- Papadakis MA, ed., et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014. 53rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed March 11, 2014.
- Spasovski G. Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2014; 29(suppl):i1.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed March 11, 2014.
- Hyponatremia. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine_and_metabolic_disorders/electrolyte_disorders/hyponatremia.html. Accessed March 14, 2014.
- Sodium, serum. Mayo Medical Laboratories. http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/81692. Accessed March 15, 2014.
- Sterns RH. Causes of hyponatremia in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 11, 2014.
- Bennett BL, et al. Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for treatment of exercise-associated hyponatremia. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 2013;24:228.