In chronic hyponatremia, sodium levels drop gradually over 48 hours or longer — and symptoms and complications are typically more moderate.
In acute hyponatremia, sodium levels drop rapidly — resulting in potentially dangerous effects, such as rapid brain swelling, which can result in coma and death.
Premenopausal women appear to be at the greatest risk of hyponatremia-related brain damage. This may be related to the effect of women's sex hormones on the body's ability to balance sodium levels.
May. 28, 2014
- Papadakis MA, ed., et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014. 53rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed March 11, 2014.
- Spasovski G. Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2014; 29(suppl):i1.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed March 11, 2014.
- Hyponatremia. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine_and_metabolic_disorders/electrolyte_disorders/hyponatremia.html. Accessed March 14, 2014.
- Sodium, serum. Mayo Medical Laboratories. http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/81692. Accessed March 15, 2014.
- Sterns RH. Causes of hyponatremia in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 11, 2014.
- Bennett BL, et al. Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for treatment of exercise-associated hyponatremia. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 2013;24:228.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.