In chronic hyponatremia, sodium levels drop gradually over 48 hours or longer — and symptoms and complications are typically more moderate.

In acute hyponatremia, sodium levels drop rapidly — resulting in potentially dangerous effects, such as rapid brain swelling, which can result in coma and death.

Premenopausal women appear to be at the greatest risk of hyponatremia-related brain damage. This may be related to the effect of women's sex hormones on the body's ability to balance sodium levels.

May. 28, 2014

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