Difficulty swallowing can be painful and may indicate a serious medical problem.
Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
A CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of the inside of your body.
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that can detect changes within certain tissues or organs early, often before disease progresses.
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
Treatments and drugs
Radiation therapy is a common means of treating many types of cancer. Find out what to expect during your radiation therapy treatment.
Thyroidectomy is surgery to remove all or part of your thyroid gland. Thyroidectomy may be used to treat thyroid disorders, including cancer, goiter and hyperthyroidism.
Jan. 25, 2012
- Lai SY, et al. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, et al. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05283-2..X0001-8--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05283-2&uniqId=230100505-57. Accessed Dec. 28, 2011.
- Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Falls Church, Va.: American Thyroid Association. http://thyroidguidelines.net/revised/taskforce. Accessed Dec. 28, 2011.
- Thyroid carcinoma. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed Dec. 28, 2011.
- What you need to know about thyroid cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/thyroid. Accessed Dec. 28, 2011.