Difficulty swallowing can be painful and may indicate a serious medical problem.
Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
A CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of the inside of your body.
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
Treatments and drugs
Jan. 25, 2012
- Lai SY, et al. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, et al. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05283-2..X0001-8--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05283-2&uniqId=230100505-57. Accessed Dec. 28, 2011.
- Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Falls Church, Va.: American Thyroid Association. http://thyroidguidelines.net/revised/taskforce. Accessed Dec. 28, 2011.
- Thyroid carcinoma. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed Dec. 28, 2011.
- What you need to know about thyroid cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/thyroid. Accessed Dec. 28, 2011.
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