Sleep apnea causes people to repeatedly stop breathing during their sleep. Common signs of this sleep disorder include loud snores punctuated by periods of silence.
An enlarged spleen is usually a sign of an underlying problem. Treatment varies, depending on what's causing the enlargement.
Tests and diagnosis
Amniocentesis — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this prenatal test.
Chorionic villus sampling — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this early prenatal test.
Treatments and drugs
Gene therapy is an experimental treatment that involves altering genes in a person's cells to stop disease.
When is a tonsillectomy needed for throat infections, sleep apnea or other tonsil problems? Find out when it might help.
Dec. 13, 2012
- Scarpa, et al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II: European recommendations for the diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of a rare disease. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2011;6:1.
- Martin R, et al. Recognition and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter syndrome). Pediatrics. 2008;121:e377.
- Mucopolysaccharidoses fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/mucopolysaccharidoses/detail_mucopolysaccharidoses.htm. Accessed Oct. 11, 2012.
- Kakkis E, et al. Complications and management of the mucopolysaccharidoses. http://www.uptodate.com/ index. Accessed Sept. 21, 2012.
- Muenzer J, et al. Multidisciplinary management of Hunter syndrome. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e1228.
- Da Silva EMK, et al. Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011; 9:CD008185. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008185.pub2/abstract. Accessed Oct. 1, 2012.
- Valayannopoulos V, et al. Therapy for the mucopolysaccharidoses. Rheumatology. 2011;50:v49.