Sleep apnea causes people to repeatedly stop breathing during their sleep. Common signs of this sleep disorder include loud snores punctuated by periods of silence.
Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to various life-threatening conditions. But it's easily detected — and you can work with your doctor to control it.
An enlarged spleen is usually a sign of an underlying problem. Treatment varies, depending on what's causing the enlargement.
Tests and diagnosis
Amniocentesis — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this prenatal test.
Chorionic villus sampling — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this early prenatal test.
Treatments and drugs
Gene therapy is an experimental treatment that involves altering genes in a person's cells to stop disease.
When is a tonsillectomy needed for throat infections, sleep apnea or other tonsil problems? Find out when it might help.
Dec. 13, 2012
- Scarpa, et al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II: European recommendations for the diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of a rare disease. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2011;6:1.
- Martin R, et al. Recognition and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter syndrome). Pediatrics. 2008;121:e377.
- Mucopolysaccharidoses fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/mucopolysaccharidoses/detail_mucopolysaccharidoses.htm. Accessed Oct. 11, 2012.
- Kakkis E, et al. Complications and management of the mucopolysaccharidoses. http://www.uptodate.com/ index. Accessed Sept. 21, 2012.
- Muenzer J, et al. Multidisciplinary management of Hunter syndrome. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e1228.
- Da Silva EMK, et al. Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011; 9:CD008185. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008185.pub2/abstract. Accessed Oct. 1, 2012.
- Valayannopoulos V, et al. Therapy for the mucopolysaccharidoses. Rheumatology. 2011;50:v49.
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