Cholesterol: Top foods to improve your numbers
Diet can play an important role in lowering your cholesterol. Here are the top foods to lower your cholesterol and protect your heart.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Can a bowl of oatmeal help lower your cholesterol? How about a handful of walnuts or an avocado? A few simple tweaks to your diet — like these, along with exercise and other heart-healthy habits — might help you lower your cholesterol.
Oatmeal, oat bran and high-fiber foods
Oatmeal contains soluble fiber, which reduces your low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the "bad" cholesterol. Soluble fiber is also found in such foods as kidney beans, apples, pears, barley and prunes.
Soluble fiber can reduce the absorption of cholesterol into your bloodstream. Five to 10 grams or more of soluble fiber a day decreases your total and LDL cholesterol. Eating 1 1/2 cups of cooked oatmeal provides 6 grams of fiber. If you add fruit, such as bananas, you'll add about 4 more grams of fiber. To mix it up a little, try steel-cut oatmeal or cold cereal made with oatmeal or oat bran.
Fish and omega-3 fatty acids
Eating fatty fish can be heart healthy because of its high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, which can reduce your blood pressure and risk of developing blood clots. In people who have already had heart attacks, fish oil — or omega-3 fatty acids — may reduce the risk of sudden death.
Although omega-3 fatty acids don't affect LDL levels, because of their other heart benefits, the American Heart Association recommends eating at least two servings of fish a week. The highest levels of omega-3 fatty acids are in:
- Lake trout
- Albacore tuna
You should bake or grill the fish to avoid adding unhealthy fats. If you don't like fish, you can also get small amounts of omega-3 fatty acids from foods such as ground flaxseed or canola oil.
You can take an omega-3 or fish oil supplement to get some of the benefits, but you won't get other nutrients in fish, such as selenium. If you decide to take a supplement, talk to your doctor about how much you should take.
Walnuts, almonds and other nuts
Walnuts, almonds and other tree nuts can improve blood cholesterol. Rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, walnuts also help keep blood vessels healthy.
Eating about a handful (1.5 ounces, or 42.5 grams) a day of most nuts, such as almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pecans, some pine nuts, pistachio nuts and walnuts, may reduce your risk of heart disease. Make sure the nuts you eat aren't salted or coated with sugar.
All nuts are high in calories, so a handful will do. To avoid eating too many nuts and gaining weight, replace foods high in saturated fat with nuts. For example, instead of using cheese, meat or croutons in your salad, add a handful of walnuts or almonds.
Avocados are a potent source of nutrients as well as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). According to a recent study, adding an avocado a day to a heart-healthy diet can help improve LDL levels in people who are overweight or obese.
People tend to be most familiar with avocados in guacamole, which usually is eaten with high-fat corn chips. Try adding avocado slices to salads and sandwiches or eating them as a side dish. Also try guacamole with raw cut vegetables, such as cucumber slices.
Replacing saturated fats, such as those found in meats, with MUFAs are part of what makes the Mediterranean diet heart healthy.
June 12, 2015
- Your guide to lowering your cholesterol with TLC. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/resources/heart/cholesterol-tlc. Accessed April 26, 2015.
- Mozaffarian D, et al. Components of a cardioprotective diet: New insights. Circulation. 2011;123:2870.
- Lifestyle changes and cholesterol. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/PreventionTreatmentofHighCholesterol/Lifestyle-Changes-and-Cholesterol_UCM_305627_Article.jsp. Accessed April 26, 2015.
- Fish 101. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyEating/Fish-101_UCM_305986_Article.jsp. Accessed April 27, 2015.
- Tangney CC, et al. Lipid lowering with diet or dietary supplements. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 26, 2015.
- Sikand G, et al. Impact of functional foods on prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Current Cardiology Reports. 2015;17:39.
- Whitehead A, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat b-glucan: A meta-analysis of randomized control trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014;100:1431.
- Gylling H, et al. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2014;232:346.
- An avocado a day may keep bad cholesterol at bay. American Heart Association. http://blog.heart.org/avocado-day-may-help-keep-bad-cholesterol-bay/. Accessed April 27, 2015.
- Wang L, et al. Effect of a moderate fat diet with and without avocados on lipoprotein particle number, size and subclasses in overweight and obese adults: A random, controlled trial. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2015;4:e00.
- Pal S, et al. Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. British Journal of Nutrition. 2010;104:716.