Hepatopulmonary (hep-uh-toe-POOL-moe-nar-e) syndrome is an uncommon condition that affects the lungs of people with advanced liver disease. Hepatopulmonary syndrome results in low blood oxygen levels (hypoxemia) caused by blood vessels expanding (dilating) in size and number, which makes it hard for the lungs to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the body.
Liver transplant is the only cure for the syndrome.
Jan. 10, 2015
- Lange PA, et al. Hepatopulmonary syndrome: Prevalence, causes, clinical manifestations and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 22, 2014.
- Lange PA, et al. Hepatopulmonary syndrome: Natural history, treatment and outcomes. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 22, 2014.
- Liver transplant. Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.org/liver-transplant/statistics.html. Accessed Nov. 22, 2014.
- Krowka MJ, et al. Pulmonary contraindications, indications and MELD exceptions for liver transplantation: A contemporary view and look forward. Journal of Hepatology. 2013;59:367.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 23, 2014.
- Iyer VN, et al. Hepatopulmonary syndrome: Favorable outcomes in the MELD exception era. Hepatology 2013;57:2427.