Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects hormone levels in males. Discover what causes it — and what treatments are available.
Tests and diagnosis
A CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of the inside of your body.
Mammography can lead to detection of breast cancer at its earliest and most treatable stage.
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
Treatments and drugs
Mastectomy — surgical removal of all breast tissue in one or both breasts — is an effective treatment for many types of breast cancer.
Jan. 02, 2014
- Dickson G. Gynecomastia. American Family Physician. 2012;85:716.
- Braunstein GD. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of gynecomastia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 28, 2013.
- Papadakis MA, et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2013. 52nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed Aug. 29, 2013.
- Morcos RN, et al. Gynecomastia: When is treatment indicated? The Journal of Family Practice. 2012;61:719.
- Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1608/0.html. Accessed Aug. 29, 2013.
- Braunstein GD. Causes and evaluation of gynecomastia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 29, 2013.
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