Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask you questions about your medical and drug history and what health conditions run in your family. The doctor will also do a physical examination that may include careful evaluation of your breast tissue, abdomen and genitals.

Initial tests to determine the cause of your gynecomastia may include:

  • Blood tests
  • Mammograms

You may need further testing depending on your initial test results, including:

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scans
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans
  • Testicular ultrasounds
  • Tissue biopsies

Conditions that cause similar symptoms

Your doctor will want to be sure your breast swelling is actually gynecomastia and not another condition. Other conditions that can cause similar symptoms include:

  • Fatty breast tissue. Some men and boys have chest fat that resembles gynecomastia. This is called false gynecomastia (pseudogynecomastia), and it isn't the same as gynecomastia.
  • Breast cancer. This is uncommon in men, but can occur. Enlargement of one breast or the presence of a firm nodule raises the concern for male breast cancer.
  • A breast abscess (mastitis). This is an infection of the breast tissue.
Nov. 01, 2016
References
  1. Braunstein GD. Clinical features, diagnosis, and evaluation of gynecomastia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 27, 2016.
  2. Braunstein GD. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and causes of gynecomastia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 27, 2016.
  3. Braunstein GD. Management of gynecomastia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 27, 2016.
  4. Longo DL, et al., eds. Disorders of the testes and male reproductive system. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed July 27, 2016.
  5. Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Endocrine disorders. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2016. 55th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2016. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed July 27, 2016.
  6. Gynecomastia. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/male-reproductive-endocrinology-and-related-disorders/gynecomastia. Accessed July 27, 2016.
  7. AskMayoExpert. Gynecomastia. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.

Enlarged breasts in men (gynecomastia)