Because chronic forms of glaucoma can destroy vision before any signs or symptoms are apparent, be aware of these factors:

  • Elevated internal eye pressure (intraocular pressure). If your internal eye pressure (intraocular pressure) is higher than normal, you're at increased risk of developing glaucoma, though not everyone with elevated intraocular pressure develops the disease.
  • Age. You're at a higher risk of glaucoma if you're older than age 60, particularly if you're Mexican-American. You may be at higher risk of angle-closure glaucoma if you're older than age 40. For certain groups such as African-Americans, however, the risk of developing glaucoma is much higher and occurs at a younger age than that of other groups. If you're African-American, ask your doctor when you should start having regular comprehensive eye exams.
  • Ethnic background. African-Americans older than age 40 have much higher risk of developing glaucoma than do whites (Caucasians). African-Americans also are more likely to experience permanent blindness as a result of glaucoma. People of Asian descent have an increased risk of developing acute angle-closure glaucoma. People of Japanese descent may be more likely to have normal-tension glaucoma.
  • Family history of glaucoma. If you have a family history of glaucoma, you have a greater risk of developing it. Glaucoma may have a genetic link, meaning there's a defect in one or more genes that may cause certain individuals to be more susceptible to the disease. A form of juvenile open-angle glaucoma has been clearly linked to genetic abnormalities.
  • Medical conditions. Several conditions may increase your risk of developing glaucoma, including diabetes, heart diseases, high blood pressure and hypothyroidism.
  • Other eye conditions. Severe eye injuries can cause increased eye pressure. Other eye conditions that could cause increased risk of glaucoma include eye tumors, retinal detachment, eye inflammation and lens dislocation. Certain types of eye surgery also may trigger glaucoma. Also, being nearsighted or farsighted may increase your risk of developing glaucoma.
  • Long-term corticosteroid use. Using corticosteroid medications, especially eyedrops for a long period of time may increase your risk of developing secondary glaucoma.
Oct. 02, 2012