Genital wart complications may include:
Jan. 02, 2014
- Cancer. Cervical cancer has been closely linked with genital HPV infection. Certain types of HPV also are associated with cancer of the vulva, cancer of the anus, cancer of the penis, and cancer of the mouth and throat. Human papillomavirus infection doesn't always lead to cancer, but it's still important for women to have regular Pap tests, particularly if you've been infected with higher risk types of HPV.
Problems during pregnancy. Genital warts may cause problems during pregnancy. Warts could enlarge, making it difficult to urinate. Warts on the vaginal wall may reduce the ability of vaginal tissues to stretch during childbirth. Large warts on the vulva or in the vagina can bleed when stretched during delivery.
Rarely, a baby born to a mother with genital warts may develop warts in his or her throat. The baby may need surgery to make sure his airway isn't blocked.
- Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy. 5th ed. Edinburgh, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 5, 2013.
- Genital HPV infection: Fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm. Accessed Sept. 5, 2013.
- Breen E, et al. Condylomata acuminata (anogenital warts). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 5, 2013.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 5, 2013.
- Making sense of your Pap and HPV test results. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/pap/default.htm. Accessed Sept. 5, 2013.
- Frequently asked questions: Special procedures — Cervical cancer screening. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/~/media/ EC8117ABF5564928A740C4D1B3310E44.ashx. Accessed Sept. 1, 2013.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, et al. Recommendations on the use of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in males — Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendations and Reports. 2011:60;1705. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6050a3.htm. Accessed Oct. 1, 2013.
- Ali H, et al. Genital warts in young Australians five years into national human papillomavirus vaccination programme: National surveillance data. BMJ. 2013;346:f2032.
- Mikolajczyk RT, et al. Changes in incidence of anogenital warts diagnoses after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Germany — an ecologic study. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2013;40:28.
- Bauer HM, et al. Evidence of human papillomavirus vaccine effectiveness in reducing genital warts: An analysis of California public family planning administrative claims data, 2007-2010. American Journal of Public Health. 2012;102:833.
- Macartney KK, et al. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: A review. Drug Safety. 2013;36:393.
- Rohren CH (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 16, 2013.
- Gallenberg MM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 24, 2013.
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