Symptoms and causes

Symptoms

The lumps associated with ganglion cysts can be characterized by:

  • Location. Ganglion cysts most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of your wrists or hands. The next most common locations are the ankles and feet. These cysts can occur near other joints as well.
  • Shape and size. Ganglion cysts are round or oval and usually measure less than an inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter. Some are so small that they can't be felt. The size of a cyst can fluctuate, often getting larger when you use that joint for repetitive motions.
  • Pain. Ganglion cysts usually are painless. But if a cyst presses on a nerve — even if the cyst is too small to form a noticeable lump — it can cause pain, tingling, numbness or muscle weakness.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you experience a noticeable lump or pain in your wrist, hand, ankle or foot. He or she can make a diagnosis and determine whether you need treatment.

Causes

No one knows exactly what causes a ganglion cyst to develop. It grows out of a joint or the lining of a tendon, looking like a tiny water balloon on a stalk, and seems to occur when the tissue that surrounds a joint or a tendon bulges out of place. Inside the cyst is a thick lubricating fluid similar to that found in joints or around tendons.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of ganglion cysts include:

  • Your sex and age. Ganglion cysts can develop in anyone, but they most commonly occur in women between the ages of 20 and 40.
  • Osteoarthritis. People who have wear-and-tear arthritis in the finger joints closest to their fingernails are at higher risk of developing ganglion cysts near those joints.
  • Joint or tendon injury. Joints or tendons that have been injured in the past are more likely to develop ganglion cysts.
Jan. 05, 2016
References
  1. De Keyser F. Ganglion cysts of the wrist and hand. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 4, 2015.
  2. Frontera WR, et al. Hand and wrist ganglia. In: Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 4, 2015.
  3. Ferri FF. Ganglia. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier, 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 4, 2015.
  4. Ganglion cysts. American Society for Surgery of the Hand. http://www.assh.org/handcare/Hand-Anatomy/Details-Page/articleId/27970. Accessed Nov. 4, 2015.
  5. Ganglion cyst. American College of Foot and Ankle surgeons. http://www.foothealthfacts.org/footankleinfo/ganglion-cyst.htm. Accessed Nov. 4, 2015.
  6. Amadio PC (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 9, 2015.