Tests to evaluate your condition may include:
- Clinical breast exam. Your doctor checks for unusual areas by visually and manually examining your breasts and the lymph nodes located in your lower neck and underarm area. If your medical history and the clinical breast exam indicate normal breast changes, you may not need additional tests. If your doctor finds a new lump and suspects fibrocystic changes, you may come back a few weeks later, after your menstrual period, to have another breast exam. If the changes persist, you'll likely need a mammogram or ultrasound.
- Mammogram. If your doctor detects a breast lump or prominent thickening in your breast tissue, you need a diagnostic mammogram — an X-ray exam that focuses on a specific area of concern in your breast. The radiologist closely examines the area of concern when interpreting the mammogram.
- Ultrasound. An ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images of your breasts and is often performed along with a mammogram. If you're younger than age 30, you might have an ultrasound instead of a mammogram. Ultrasound is better for evaluating a younger woman's dense breast tissue — tissue tightly packed with lobules, ducts and connective tissue (stroma). Ultrasound can also help your doctor distinguish between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses.
- Fine-needle aspiration. For a breast lump that feels a lot like a cyst, your doctor may try fine-needle aspiration to see if fluid can be withdrawn from the lump. This helpful procedure can be done in the office. A fine-needle aspiration may collapse the cyst and resolve discomfort.
- Breast biopsy. If a diagnostic mammogram and ultrasound are normal, but your doctor still has concerns about a breast lump, you may be referred to a breast surgeon to determine whether you need a surgical breast biopsy. A breast biopsy is a procedure to remove a small sample of breast tissue for microscopic analysis. If a suspicious area is detected during an imaging exam, your radiologist may recommend an ultrasound-guided breast biopsy or a sterotactic biopsy, which uses mammography to pinpoint the exact location for the biopsy.