Fetal macrosomia is difficult to detect and diagnose during pregnancy. Possible signs and symptoms include:
May. 24, 2012
- Large fundal height. During prenatal visits, your health care provider might measure your fundal height — the distance from the top of your uterus to your pubic bone. A fundal height that measures larger than expected could be a sign of fetal macrosomia.
- Excessive amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios). Too much amniotic fluid — the fluid that surrounds and protects a baby during pregnancy — might be a sign that your baby is larger than average. The amount of amniotic fluid reflects your baby's urine output, and a larger baby produces more urine. Some conditions that increase a baby's size might also increase his or her urine output.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Your Pregnancy and Childbirth Month to Month. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2010:241.
- Abramocwicz JS, et al. Fetal macrosomia. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 13, 2012.
- Rodis JF. Timing and route of delivery in pregnancies at risk of shoulder dystocia. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 13, 2012.
- Mandy GT. Large for gestational age newborn. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 13, 2012.
- Cunningham FG, et al. Williams Obstetrics. 23rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2010. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=6036563. Accessed March 14, 2012.
- DeCherney AH, et al.. Current Diagnosis & Treatment Obstetrics & Gynecology. 10th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2007. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=2384988. Accessed March 14, 2012.
- Gibbs RS, et al. Danforth's Obstetrics and Gynecology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008. http://www.danforthsobgyn.com. Accessed March 19, 2012.
- Chatfield J. ACOG issues guidelines on fetal macrosomia. American Family Physician. 2001;64:169.
- Rodis JF. Intrapartum management and outcome of shoulder dystocia. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Routine prenatal care. Bloomington, Minn.: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. http://www.icsi.org/guidelines_and_more/gl_os_prot/womens_health/prenatal_care_4/prenatal_care__routine__3.html. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Tse G, et al. Weight gain and loss in pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Mulik, et al. The outcome of macrosomic fetuses in a low risk primigravid population. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003;80:15.
- Hackmon R, et al. Combined analysis with amniotic fluid index and estimated fetal weight for prediction of severe macrosomia at birth. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007;196:333.e1.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Committee on Practice Bulletins - Obstetrics. ACOG Practice Bulletin No.60. Pregestational diabetes mellitus. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2005;105:675.
- Raio L, et al. Perinatal outcome of fetuses with a birth weight greater than 4500 g: An analysis of 3356 cases. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2003;109:160.
- Special tests for monitoring fetal health. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp098.cfm. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Gillen-Goldstein J, et al. Assessment of fetal lung maturity. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Wegner EK, et al. Operative vaginal delivery. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 21, 2012.
- McCulloch DK, et al. Prediction and prevention of type 2 diabetes. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 21, 2012.
- What is metabolic syndrome? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms/. Accessed March 21, 2012.
- Harms RW (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 22, 2012.
- Cleary-Goldman J, et al. Impact of maternal age on obstetric outcome. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2005;105:983.
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