Difficulty swallowing can be painful and may indicate a serious medical problem.
Angina is a common type of chest pain caused by coronary artery disease. Unstable angina can be a warning sign of a heart attack.
Tests and diagnosis
Esophageal manometry is a test that may be used to help diagnose disorders of the esophagus or to prepare for esophageal surgery.
Find out what to expect during your endoscopy exam.
X-rays are a form of radiation that can make images of your bones and internal organs.
Oct. 19, 2012
- Feldman M, et al. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-6189-2..X0001-7--TOP&isbn=978-1-4160-6189-2&about=true&uniqId=229935664-2192. Accessed Aug. 16, 2012.
- Grubel C, et al. Diffuse esophageal spasm. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008;103:450.
- Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1604-7..C2009-0-42832-0--TOP&isbn=978-1-4377-1604-7&uniqId=327451096-2. Accessed Aug. 19, 2012.
- Townsend CM, et al. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/164856770-3/902155171/1565/469.html#4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-3675-3..50052-6--cesec137_2746. Accessed Aug. 19, 2012.
- Herbella FA, et al. Surgical treatment of primary esophageal motility disorders. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2008;12:604.
- Picco MP (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla. Aug. 22, 2012.
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