Your doctor might recommend:
Oct. 21, 2015
- Endoscopy. A flexible tube (endoscope) that is passed down your throat allows your doctor to see the inside of the esophagus. Your doctor may remove a tissue sample (biopsy) for testing to rule out other esophageal diseases.
X-ray. Images of your esophagus are taken after you swallow a contrast liquid.
- Esophageal manometry. This test measures muscle contractions in your esophagus when you swallow water
- Esophageal pH monitoring. This test can determine if stomach acid is flowing back into your esophagus (acid reflux).
- Feldman M, et al. Esophageal neuromuscular function and motility disorders. In: Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 30, 2015.
- Castell DO. Esophageal motility disorders: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 30, 2015.
- Ravi K, et al. Diagnosis and medical management of esophageal dysmotility. Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2015;17:62.
- Cameron JL. Disorders of esophageal motility. In: Current Surgical Therapy. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 30, 2015.
- Weijenborg PW, et al. Effects of antidepressants in patients with functional esophageal disorders or gastroesophageal reflux disease: A systematic review. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2015;13:251.
- Coss-Adame E, et al. Treatment of esophageal (noncardiac) chest pain: An expert review. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2014;12:1224.
- Castell DO. Chest pain of esophageal origin. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 30, 2015.
- Vanuytsel T, et al. Botulinum toxin reduces dysphagia in patients with nonachalasia primary esophageal motility disorders. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2013;11:1115.
- Picco MF (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla. Sept. 10, 2015.
- Khashab MA, et al. International multicenter experience with peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of spastic esophageal disorders refractory to medical therapy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2015;81:1170.