Epiglottitis is caused by an infection or an injury.
A common cause of swelling and inflammation of the epiglottis and surrounding tissues is infection with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacteria. Hib is responsible for a number of serious conditions, the most common of which is meningitis.
Hib spreads through infected droplets coughed or sneezed into the air. It's possible to harbor Hib in your nose and throat without becoming sick — though you still have the potential to spread the bacteria to others.
Other bacteria and viruses also can cause inflammation of the epiglottis, including:
- Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), another bacterium that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, ear infections and blood infection (septicemia)
- Streptococcus A, B and C, a group of bacteria that also can cause diseases ranging from strep throat to blood infections
Physical injury, such as a direct blow to the throat, can cause epiglottitis. So can burns from drinking very hot liquids.
You also may develop signs and symptoms similar to those of epiglottitis if you:
Oct. 02, 2012
- Swallow a chemical that burns your throat
- Swallow a foreign object
- Smoke drugs, such as crack cocaine
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- Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-hib.pdf. Accessed May 19, 2012.
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- Lalwani AK. Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=55768949. Accessed May 17, 2012.
- Kavanagh KR, et al. Traumatic epiglottitis after foreign body ingestion. Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2008;72:901.
- Shah RK, et al. Epiglottitis in the United States: National trends, variances, prognosis and management. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1256.
- Valdez-Lowe C, et al. Pulse oximetry in adults. American Journal of Nursing. 2009;109:52.
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