Treatment

Many cases of endocarditis are successfully treated with antibiotics. Sometimes, surgery may be required to fix damaged heart valves and clean up any remaining signs of the infection.

Antibiotics

If you have endocarditis, your doctor might recommend high doses of intravenous (IV) antibiotics in the hospital. Your doctor will use blood culture tests to help identify the organism that's causing your infection. Based on the results of your blood tests, your doctor will choose the most appropriate antibiotic or combination of antibiotics to fight the infection.

You'll generally spend a week or more in the hospital when you start taking IV antibiotics. This gives your doctor time to see if the antibiotics are working against your infection. You'll usually take antibiotics for several weeks to clear up the infection.

Once your fever and the worst of your signs and symptoms have passed, you might be able to leave the hospital and continue IV antibiotic therapy with visits to your doctor's office or at home with home-based care. You'll still need to see your doctor regularly to make sure your treatment is working.

It's important to tell your doctor about any signs or symptoms that may mean your infection is getting worse, such as:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headaches
  • Joint pain
  • Shortness of breath

Also, if you develop diarrhea, a rash, itching or joint pain, let your doctor know as soon as possible. These signs and symptoms may indicate you're having a reaction to your prescribed antibiotic.

If you have shortness of breath or swelling in your legs, ankles or feet after you start antibiotic treatment, see your doctor immediately. These signs and symptoms can be indicators of heart failure.

Surgery

If the infection damages your heart valves, you may have symptoms and complications for years after treatment. Sometimes surgery is needed to treat persistent infections or to replace a damaged valve. Surgery is also sometimes needed to treat endocarditis that's caused by a fungal infection.

Depending on your condition, your doctor may recommend either repairing your damaged valve or replacing it with an artificial valve made of cow, pig or human heart tissue (biological tissue valve) or man-made materials (mechanical valve).

July 15, 2017
References
  1. Endocarditis. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/endo/. Accessed March 3, 2017.
  2. Karchmer A. Infective endocarditis. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=79733720&bookid=1130&... Accessed Feb. 24, 2017.
  3. Sexton DJ, et al. Epidemiology, risk factors, and microbiology of infective endocarditis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 24, 2017.
  4. Sexton DJ, et al. Clinical manifestations and evaluation of adults with suspected native valve endocarditis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 24, 2017.
  5. Spelman D, et al. Complications and outcomes of infective endocarditis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 3, 2017.
  6. Sexton DJ, et al. Antimicrobial therapy of native valve endocarditis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 3, 2017.
  7. What is infective endocarditis? American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/HeartValveProblemsandDisease/Heart-Valves-and-Infective-Endocarditis_UCM_450448_Article.jsp#.WOUJ42czXIV. Accessed March 14, 2017.

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