In-depth

Coping and support

Palliative care

Risk factors

Secondhand smoke

Symptoms

Shortness of breath

Symptom Checker

Foot pain? Headache? Sore throat? Skin rash? Use the Symptom Checker to find out what's causing your symptom.

Tests and diagnosis

Chest X-rays

CT scan

Spirometry

Treatments and drugs

Lung transplant

April 28, 2017
References
  1. What is COPD? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd/#. Accessed Jan. 9, 2017.
  2. Mason RJ, et al. COPD: Pathogenesis and natural history. In: Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 11, 2017.
  3. Goldman L, et al., eds. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 12, 2017.
  4. AskMayoExpert. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
  5. Longo DL, et al., eds. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Jan. 11, 2017.
  6. Weiss ST. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Risk factors and risk reduction. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 11, 2017.
  7. Han MK, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Definition, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and staging. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 11, 2017.
  8. Ferguson GT, et al. Management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 11, 2017.
  9. What is bronchitis? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/brnchi. Accessed Jan. 9, 2017.
  10. Jong EC, et al. Travel with chronic medical conditions. In: Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.
  11. Gautret P, et al. Travel-associated illness in older adults (>60 y). Journal of Travel Medicine. 2012;19:169.
  12. Fishwick D, et al. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A standard of care. Occupational Medicine. 2015;65:270.
  13. Support and community. American Lung Association. http://www.lung.org/support-and-community/. Accessed Jan. 23, 2017.
  14. COPD treatment options. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/copd/breathing-better/treatment-options.htm. Accessed Jan. 23, 2017.