Depending on the type of dystonia, you may experience complications, including:
- Permanent physical deformities
- Physical disabilities that can affect your ability to perform day-to-day activities or specific tasks
- Functional blindness from dystonia that affects your eyelids (blepharospasm)
- Positioning of your head to one side or pulled forward or backward
- Difficulty with jaw movement, swallowing or speech
- Pain and fatigue, due to constant contraction of your muscles
All of these factors may lead to feelings of frustration, depression or anxiety.
May. 12, 2012
- Dystonias fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dystonias/detail_dystonias.htm. Accessed Feb. 14, 2012.
- Comella C. Classification and evaluation of dystonia. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Phukan J, et al. Primary dystonia and dystonia-plus syndromes: Clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and pathogenesis. The Lancet Neurology. 2011;10:1074.
- Dystonias. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merck.com/mmpe/print/sec16/ch221/ch221c.html. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Neurological diagnostic tests and procedures. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/misc/diagnostic_tests.htm. Accessed Feb. 14, 2012.
- Comella C. Treatment of dystonia. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2012: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05611-3..00013-6--sc0135&isbn=978-0-323-05611-3&uniqId=317541266-3#4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05611-3..00013-6--sc0135. Accessed Feb. 14, 2012.
- Ozelius LJ, et al. Milestones in dystonia. Movement Disorders. 2011;26:1106.
- Complementary therapy. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. http://www.dystonia-foundation.org/pages/complementary_therapy/156.php. Accessed Feb. 14, 2012.
- Terms related to complementary and alternative medicine. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/providers/camterms.htm. Accessed Feb. 15, 2012.
- Yoga for health: An introduction. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/yoga/introduction.htm. Accessed Feb. 15, 2012.
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