Certain factors appear to increase the risk of developing or triggering dysthymia, including:
Dec. 20, 2012
- Having a first-degree relative with dysthymia or major depression
- Stressful life events, such as the loss of a loved one or financial problems
- Interpersonal dependency where the person relies excessively on approval, reassurance and attention from others and then this approval is significantly reduced or no longer occurs
- Dysthymic disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. http://www.psychiatryonline.com. Accessed Oct. 23, 2012.
- Ebert MH, et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Psychiatry. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2008. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=10. Accessed Oct. 24, 2012.
- Cuijpers P, et al. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. 2010;30:51.
- Understanding major depression. National Alliance on Mental Health. http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?section=Search&Template=Search/SearchDisplay.cfm. Accessed Oct. 24, 2012.
- Depression and complementary health practices: What the science says. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/providers/digest/depression-science.htm. Accessed May 10, 2012.
- Depression. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression/complete-index.shtml. Accessed Oct. 23, 2012.
- Marchand WR. Mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and Zen meditation for depression. Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2012;18:233.
- Tanyi RA, et al. The effects of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)-based lifestyle intervention in modifying the progression of depression in clinically depressed adults. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 2011;42:151.
- Cuijpers P, et al. Personalized treatment of adult depression: Medication, psychotherapy, or both? A systematic review. Depression and Anxiety. 2012;29:855.
- VonWolff A, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants in the acute treatment of chronic depression and dysthymia: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. In press. Accessed Oct. 24. 2012.
- Hourani LL, et al. Influence of spirituality on depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidality in active duty military personnel. Depression Research and Treatment. 2012;2012:1.
- Wu J, et al. Acupuncture for depression: A review of clinical applications. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2012;57:397.
- Chi J, et al. Tai chi and reduction of depressive symptoms for older adults: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Geriatrics & Gerontology International. In press. Accessed Aug. 28, 2012.
- Chan MF, et al. The effectiveness of music listening in reducing depressive symptoms in adults: A systemic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2011;19:332.
- McCaffrey R, et al. Garden walking and art therapy for depression in older adults: A pilot study. Research in Gerontological Nursing. 2011;4:237.
- Carpenter DJ. St. John's wort and s-adenosyl methionine as "natural" alternatives to conventional antidepressants in the era of the suicidality boxed warning: What is the evidence for clinically relevant benefit? Alternative Medicine Review. 2011;16:17.
- Hall-Flavin DK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 26, 2012 & Nov. 18, 2012.
- Kung S (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 26, 2012.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.