Tests and diagnosis

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Your doctor will likely perform a physical examination and may use a variety of tests to determine the cause of your swallowing problem.

Tests may include:

  • X-ray with a contrast material (barium X-ray). You drink a barium solution that coats your esophagus, allowing it to show up better on X-rays. Your doctor can then see changes in the shape of your esophagus and can assess the muscular activity.

    Your doctor may also have you swallow solid food or a pill coated with barium to watch the muscles in your throat as you swallow or to look for blockages in your esophagus that the liquid barium solution may not identify.

  • Dynamic swallowing study. You swallow barium-coated foods of different consistencies. This test provides an image of these foods as they travel through your mouth and down your throat. The images may show problems in the coordination of your mouth and throat muscles when you swallow and determine whether food is going into your breathing tube.
  • A visual examination of your esophagus (endoscopy). A thin, flexible lighted instrument (endoscope) is passed down your throat so your doctor can see your esophagus.
  • Fiber-optic endoscopic swallowing evaluation (FEES). Your may examine your throat with special camera (endoscope) and lighted tube as you try to swallow.
  • Esophageal muscle test (manometry). In manometry (muh-NOM-uh-tree), a small tube is inserted into your esophagus and connected to a pressure recorder to measure the muscle contractions of your esophagus as you swallow.
  • Imaging scans. These may include a CT scan, which combines a series of X-ray views and computer processing to create cross-sectional images of your body's bones and soft tissues; an MRI scan, which uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of organs and tissues; or a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, which uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to show how your tissues and organs are functioning.
Oct. 15, 2014

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