A drug allergy occurs when your immune system mistakenly identifies a drug as a harmful substance, as if it were a viral or bacterial infection.
In most cases, a drug allergy develops when your immune system has become sensitive to the drug. This means that the first time you take the drug your immune system detects it as a harmful substance and develops an antibody specific to the drug.
The next time you take the drug, these specific antibodies flag the drug and direct immune system attacks on the substance. Chemicals released by this activity cause the signs and symptoms associated with an allergic reaction.
You may not be aware of your first exposure to a drug, however. Some evidence suggests that trace amounts of a drug in the food supply, such as an antibiotic, may be sufficient for the immune system to create an antibody to it.
Some allergic reactions may result from a somewhat different process. Researchers believe that some drugs can bind directly to a certain type of immune system white blood cell called a T cell. This event sets in motion the release of chemicals that cause the allergic reaction. In such cases, an allergic reaction could occur the first time you take the drug.
Drugs commonly linked to allergies
Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, some drugs are more commonly associated with allergies. These include:
- Antibiotics, such as penicillin
- Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Chemotherapy drugs for treating cancer
- Medications for autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis
- Corticosteroid creams or lotions
- Medications for people with HIV or AIDS
- Bee pollen products
Nonallergic drug reactions
Sometimes a reaction to a drug can produce signs and symptoms virtually the same as those of a drug allergy, but it's not triggered by immune system activity. This condition is called a nonallergic hypersensitivity reaction or pseudoallergic drug reaction.
Drugs that are more commonly associated with this condition include:
Oct. 10, 2014
- Dyes used in imaging tests (radiocontrast media)
- Opiates for treating pain
- Local anesthetics
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- Young JS, et al. Chemotherapeutic medications and their emergent complications. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 2014;32:563.
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