Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
Genetic testing is used to detect altered genes that may cause illness or disease. Although genetic testing can offer important health information, it has limitations.
Treatments and drugs
Psychotherapy is one way to treat many mental illnesses. See how therapy is used and which type may be best for you.
Sept. 03, 2014
- DiGeorge syndrome. Immune Deficiency Foundation. http://primaryimmune.org/about-primary-immunodeficiencies/specific-disease-types/digeorge-syndrome/. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/22q112-deletion-syndrome. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/primary-immunodeficiency-disease/digeorge-syndrome.aspx. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- DiGeorge syndrome. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/DiGeorge-Syndrome_UCM_309017_Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. National Organization for Rare Disorders. http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/853/viewFullReport. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- DiGeorge Syndrome. The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/immunology_allergic_disorders/immunodeficiency_disorders/digeorge_syndrome.html. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- Seroogy CM. DiGeorge syndrome: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- Seroogy CM. DiGeorge syndrome: Clinical features and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- Seroogy CM. DiGeorge syndrome: Management and prognosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 16, 2014.
- Hofstetter AM, et al. Live vaccine use and safety in DiGeorge syndrome. Pediatrics. 2014;133:e946.
- VCFSEF support groups & contacts in the United States. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome Educational Foundation, Inc. http://www.vcfsef.org/sub_page.php?sub_id=27&parent_id=2. Accessed June 17, 2014.
- Babovic-Vuksanovic D (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 3, 2014.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 21, 2014.
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