Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
Genetic testing is used to detect altered genes that may cause illness or disease. Although genetic testing can offer important health information, it has limitations.
Treatments and drugs
Psychotherapy is one way to treat many mental illnesses. See how therapy is used and which type may be best for you.
Aug. 09, 2011
- Routes JM. Pulmonary complications of primary immunodeficiencies. In: Mason RJ, et al. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/192068760-2/0/1288/0.html. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- DiGeorge Syndrome. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec13/ch164/ch164h.html. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Seroogy C. DiGeorge syndrome: Pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Seroogy C. DiGeorge syndrome: Evaluation, diagnosis, and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Sullivan KE. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America. 2008;28:353.
- Buckley RH. Primary defects of cellular immunity. In: Kliegman RM. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1608/0.html. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Chromosome 22. Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome=22. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Shprintzen RJ. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: 30 years of study. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 2008;14:3.
- Boyce TG (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 29, 2011.
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