Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood glucose, commonly called blood sugar. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel.
If you have diabetes, no matter what type, it means you have too much glucose in your blood, although the reasons may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems.
Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes — when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes — and gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered.
Jan. 31, 2013
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed Sept. 23, 2012.
- American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes — 2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(suppl):1.
- Diabetes overview. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/a-z.aspx. Accessed Oct. 2, 2012.
- Diabetes mellitus (DM). The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec12/ch158/ch158b.html#sec12-ch158-ch158b-1105. Accessed Sept. 23, 2012.
- Am I at risk for type 2 diabetes? National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/riskfortype2/. Accessed Oct. 2, 2012.
- Gestational diabetes. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq177.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20121002T1047528634 Accessed Oct. 2, 2012.
- Health care guideline: Routine prenatal care. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. http://www.icsi.org/prenatal_care_4/prenatal_care__routine__full_version__2.html. Accessed Oct. 2, 2012.
- Your guide to diabetes: Type 1 and type 2. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/type1and2/index.htm. Accessed Sept. 23, 2012.
- What people with diabetes need to know about osteoporosis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/Conditions_Behaviors/diabetes.asp. Sept. 23, 2011.
- A1C. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/a1c/?keymatch=a1c. Accessed Oct. 1, 2012.
- Bergenstal RM, et al. Effectiveness of sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;363:311.
- Giovanucci E, et al. Diabetes and cancer: A consensus report. CA: A Journal for Cancer Clinicians. 2010;60:207.
- Elleri D, et al. Closed-loop insulin delivery for treatment of type 1 diabetes. BMC Medicine. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/120. Accessed Oct. 1, 2012.
- Schauer PR, et al. Bariatric surgery vs. intense medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;366:1567.
- Helzner EP, et al. Contribution of vascular risk factors to the progression in Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology. 2009;66:343.
- Mingrone G, et al. Bariatric surgery vs. conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;366:1577.
- Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic.html. Accessed Sept. 19, 2012.
- Take charge of your diabetes. Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/tcyd/vaccin.htm. Accessed Sept. 30, 2012.
- Natural Medicines in the Clinical Management of Diabetes. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed Oct. 2, 2012.
- DeFronzo RA, et al. Pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in impaired glucose tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;364:1104.
- Decade of discovery: A state takes on a disease. Discovery's Edge. Mayo Clinic's Online Research Magazine. http://discoverysedge.mayo.edu/de10-3-minnesota-partnership-diabetes.cfm. Accessed Jan. 8, 2013.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.