While mild traumatic brain injury generally results in few long-term problems, more severe injury can cause several physical, emotional, behavioral, communication and cognitive problems.
Coping and support
Curious about mental health? Discover what shapes the definitions of mental health and mental illness.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Caregivers are vulnerable to depression — but you can take active steps to prevent depression and feel your best. Consider these tips.
Aches and pains, irritability, and crying spells may have an unexpected source — stress. Recognize these and other signs and symptoms so that you can take action.
Male depression may be hard to recognize and treat. See what's behind the problem and how men can learn healthy coping strategies.
Foot pain? Headache? Sore throat? Skin rash? Use the Symptom Checker to find out what's causing your symptom.
Tests and diagnosis
Treatments and drugs
Most antidepressant side effects aren't dangerous, but they can be bothersome. Here's what to do.
Atypical antidepressants may be prescribed on their own or added to other antidepressants to boost effectiveness or counter side effects.
These older antidepressants are effective, but require diet restrictions and cause side effects. Find out about the MAOI skin patch — it may cause fewer problems.
If your depression continues despite standard treatment, it may feel like you're out of options. But there are still steps that may help.
Cyclic antidepressants can cause more side effects than other antidepressants do. But sometimes, they can be a good choice.
July 07, 2016
- Depressive disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed June 5, 2015.
- Depression. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml. Accessed June 6, 2015.
- Depression. National Alliance on Mental Illness. https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions/Depression/Overview. Accessed June 6, 2015.
- Lyness JM. Unipolar depression in adults: Assessment and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 7, 2015.
- Ciechanowski P. Unipolar major depression in adults: Choosing initial treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 7, 2015.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 17, 2015.
- Bipolar and related disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed June 7, 2015.
- Ravindran AV, et al. Complementary and alternative therapies as add-on to pharmacotherapy for mood and anxiety disorders: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2013;150:707.
- Marchand WR. Mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and Zen meditation for depression, anxiety, pain, and psychological distress. Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2012;18:233.
- Natural medicines in the clinical management of depression. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/(X(1)S(sfvi05ehv0kkun55qwgkix55))/ce/CECourse.aspx?cs=MAYO&pm=5&s=nd&pc=09-30&searchid=51946815#keywordanchor. Accessed June 7, 2015.
- Raglio A, et al. Effects of music and music therapy on mood in neurological patients. World Journal of Psychiatry. 2015;5:68.
- FYI: Understanding depression and effective treatment. American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/understanding-depression.aspx. Accessed June 5, 2015.
- Uttley L, et al. Systematic review and economic modelling of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of art therapy among people with non-psychotic mental health disorders. Health Technology Assessment. 2015;19:1.
- Research report: Psychiatry and psychology, 2014-2015. Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayo.edu/pmts/mc0700-mc0799/mc0710-11.pdf. Accessed June 5, 2015.
- Viibryd (prescribing information). Cincinnati, OH.: Forest Pharmaceuticals; 2015. http://www.viibryd.com/. Accessed June 7, 2015.
- Stewart D, et al. Risks of antidepressants during pregnancy: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 8, 2015.
- Rohren CH (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 11, 2015.
- Hoban CL, et al. A comparison of patterns of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting with St. John's wort and fluoxetine during the period 2000-2013. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 2015;42:747.
- Hall-Flavin DK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 1, 2015.