Six dengue fever vaccines are in development, but not yet available. The vaccine that's furthest in development is a three-dose vaccine for children. The results of a phase III trial were published in July 2014. This study showed that the vaccine appears to be safe, and it prevented dengue infections slightly more than half the time.
Those who had the vaccine but still became infected with dengue had a milder course of the disease than did those who weren't vaccinated. Although the vaccine is not as effective as doctors would like, it is safe. The company that makes this vaccine hasn't yet announced any plans to seek approval to market the vaccine.
So for now, if you're living or traveling in an area where dengue fever is known to be, the best way to avoid dengue fever is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes that carry the disease.
If you are living or traveling in tropical areas where dengue fever is common, these tips may help reduce your risk of mosquito bites:
Sept. 19, 2014
- Stay in air-conditioned or well-screened housing. It's particularly important to keep mosquitoes out at night.
- Reschedule outdoor activities. Avoid being outdoors at dawn, dusk and early evening, when more mosquitoes are out.
- Wear protective clothing. When you go into mosquito-infested areas, wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks and shoes.
- Use mosquito repellent. Permethrin can be applied to your clothing, shoes, camping gear and bed netting. You can also buy clothing made with permethrin already in it. For your skin, use a repellent containing at least a 10 percent concentration of DEET.
- Reduce mosquito habitat. The mosquitoes that carry the dengue virus typically live in and around houses, breeding in standing water that can collect in such things as used automobile tires. Reduce the breeding habitat to lower mosquito populations.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 18, 2014.
- Papadakis MA, ed., et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014. 53rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookId=330. Accessed June 28, 2014.
- Nathan MB, et al. Dengue: Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2009. http://www.who.int/rpc/guidelines/9789241547871/en/. Accessed July 19, 2014.
- Sinha G. Sanofi's dengue vaccine first to complete phase 3. Nature Biotechnology. 2014;32:605.
- Rothman AL. Prevention and treatment of dengue virus infection. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 14, 2014.
- Capeding MR, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of a novel tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy children in Asia: A phase 3, randomised, observer-masked, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet. In press. Accessed July 18, 2014.
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