Shortness of breath

Symptom Checker

Foot pain? Headache? Sore throat? Skin rash? Use the Symptom Checker to find out what's causing your symptom.


Tests and diagnosis

CT scan

Genetic testing

Genetic testing is used to detect altered genes that may cause illness or disease. Although genetic testing can offer important health information, it has limitations.



Treatments and drugs

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

Lung transplant

Oct. 13, 2016
  1. What is cystic fibrosis? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Accessed July 1, 2016.
  2. Goldman L, et al., eds. Cystic fibrosis. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. Accessed April 13, 2016.
  3. Kliegman RM, et al. Cystic fibrosis. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. Accessed April 13, 2016.
  4. National Library of Medicine. Cystic fibrosis. Genetics Home Reference. Accessed May 3, 2016.
  5. What is bronchiectasis? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Accessed April 13, 2016.
  6. AskMayoExpert. Cystic fibrosis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
  7. Katkin JP. Cystic fibrosis: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. Accessed April 13, 2016.
  8. Katkin JP. Cystic fibrosis: Genetics and pathogenesis. Accessed April 28, 2016.
  9. Anatomic problems of the lower GI tract. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Accessed June 24, 2016.
  10. Simon RH. Cystic fibrosis: Overview of the treatment of lung disease. Accessed April 13, 2016.
  11. Simon RH, et al. Cystic fibrosis: Investigational therapies. Accessed June 28, 2016.
  12. Quon BS, et al. New and emerging targeted therapies for cystic fibrosis. BMJ. 2016;352:i859.
  13. Elborn JS. Cystic fibrosis. Lancet. In press. Accessed June 15, 2016.
  14. Orkambi (prescribing information). Boston, Mass.: Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2016. Accessed June 30, 2016.
  15. Riggin ER. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 8, 2016.
  16. Erasmus DB (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla. Aug. 4, 2016.

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