Mild cases of craniosynostosis may not need treatment. Your doctor may recommend a specially molded helmet to help reshape your baby's head if the cranial sutures are open and the head shape is abnormal. In this situation, the molded helmet can assist your baby's brain growth and correct the shape of the skull.
However, for most babies, surgery is the primary treatment. The type and timing of surgery depends on the type of craniosynostosis and whether there's an underlying genetic syndrome.
The purpose of surgery is to correct the abnormal head shape, reduce or prevent pressure on the brain, create room for the brain to grow normally and improve your baby's appearance. This involves a process of planning and surgery.
Imaging studies can help surgeons develop a surgical procedure plan. Virtual surgical planning for treatment of craniosynostosis uses high-definition 3-D CT scans of your baby's skull to construct a computer-simulated, individualized surgical plan. Based on that virtual surgical plan, customized templates are constructed to guide the procedure.
A team that includes a specialist in surgery of the head and face (craniofacial surgeon) and a specialist in brain surgery (neurosurgeon) generally performs the procedure. Surgery can be done by endoscopic or open surgery. Both types of procedures generally produce very good cosmetic results with low risk of complications.
- Endoscopic surgery. This minimally invasive surgery may be considered for babies up to age 6 months who have single-suture craniosynostosis. Using a lighted tube and camera (endoscope) inserted through small scalp incisions, the surgeon opens the affected suture to enable your baby's brain to grow normally. Compared with an open procedure, endoscopic surgery has a smaller incision, typically involves only a one-night hospital stay and usually does not require a blood transfusion.
- Open surgery. Generally, for babies older than 6 months, open surgery is done. The surgeon makes an incision in the scalp and cranial bones, then reshapes the affected portion of the skull. The skull position is held in place with plates and screws that are absorbable. Open surgery typically involves a three- or four-day hospital stay, and blood transfusion is usually necessary. It's generally a one-time procedure, but in complex cases, multiple open surgeries are often required to correct the baby's head shape.
After endoscopic surgery, visits at certain intervals are required to fit a series of helmets to help shape your baby's skull. If open surgery is done, no helmet is needed afterward.
Oct. 18, 2016
- Cook AJ. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 14, 2016.
- Primary craniosynostosis. National Organization for Rare Diseases. http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/primary-craniosynostosis/. Accessed Aug. 12, 2016.
- NINDS craniosynostosis information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/craniosynostosis/craniosynostosis.htm. Accessed Aug. 12, 2016.
- Facts about craniosynostosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/craniosynostosis.html. Accessed Aug. 12, 2016.
- Buchanan EP, et al. Overview of craniosynostosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 12, 2016.
- Chim H, et al. Virtual surgical planning in craniofacial surgery. Seminars in Plastic Surgery. 2014;28:150.
- Morris L. Management of craniosynostosis. Facial Plastic Surgery. 2016;32:123.
- Erb TO, et al. Surgical treatment of craniosynostosis in infants: Open vs closed repair. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. 2016;29:345.
- AskMayoExpert. Craniosynostosis and positional plagiocephaly. Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
- Mardini S, et al. Three-dimensional preoperative virtual planning and template use for surgical correction of craniosynostosis. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery. 2014;67:336.
- Wetjen N (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 30, 2016.