Risk factors include:

  • Sex. Clubfoot is more common in males.
  • Family history. If either one of the parents or their other children have had clubfoot, the baby is more likely to have it as well. It's also more common if the baby has another birth defect.
  • Smoking during pregnancy. If a woman with a family history of clubfoot smokes during pregnancy, her baby's risk of the condition may be 20 times greater than average.
  • Not enough amniotic fluid during pregnancy. Too little of the fluid that surrounds the baby in the womb may increase the risk of clubfoot.
  • Getting an infection or using illicit drugs during pregnancy. These can increase the risk of clubfoot as well.
March 22, 2013