The cause of clubfoot is unknown (idiopathic). But scientists do know that clubfoot is not caused by the position of the baby in the womb (fetus). In some cases, clubfoot can be associated with other abnormalities of the skeleton that are present at birth (congenital), such as spina bifida, a serious birth defect that occurs when the tissue surrounding the developing spinal cord of a fetus doesn't close properly.

The environment plays a role in causing clubfoot. Studies have strongly linked clubfoot to cigarette smoking during pregnancy, especially when there already is a family history of clubfoot.

March 22, 2013