Several factors may increase the likelihood of a baby developing a cleft lip and cleft palate, including:
June 17, 2015
- Family history. Parents with a family history of cleft lip or cleft palate face a higher risk of having a baby with a cleft.
- Race. In the United States, cleft lip and palate are reportedly most common in Native Americans and least common in African-Americans.
- Sex. Males are twice as likely to have a cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Cleft palate without cleft lip is more common in females.
- Exposure to certain substances during pregnancy. Cleft lip and cleft palate may be more likely to occur in pregnant women who smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol or take certain medications.
- Having diabetes. There is some evidence that women diagnosed with diabetes before pregnancy may have an increased risk of having a baby with a cleft lip with or without a cleft palate.
- Being obese during pregnancy. There is some evidence that babies born to obese women may have increased risk of cleft lip and palate.
- Wilkins-Haug L. Etiology, prenatal diagnosis, obstetrical management and recurrence of orofacial clefts. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 12, 2015.
- Crockett DJ, et al. Cleft lip and palate. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America. 2014;22:573.
- Cleft lip and cleft palate surgery. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. http://www.plasticsurgery.org/reconstructive-procedures/cleft-lip-and-palate.html#content. Accessed May 12, 2015.
- Campbell A, et al. Cleft lip and palate surgery: An update of clinical outcomes for primary repair. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America. 2010;22:43.
- Cleft lip and cleft palate. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/cleftlip.html. Accessed May 12, 2015.
- Cleft lip and cleft palate. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/cleftlip/. Accessed May 12, 2015.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 23, 2015.
- Your baby's first year. Cleft Palate Foundation. http://www.cleftline.org/parents-individuals/publications/booklets/. Accessed May 13, 2015.
- Parameters for evaluation and treatment of patients with cleft lip/palate or other craniofacial anomalies. American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. http://www.acpa-cpf.org/team_care/. Accessed May 12, 2015.
- Cofer SA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 8, 2015.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 20, 2015.