In extreme cases, the circulation in your legs or arms can be so limited that you feel pain even when you aren't exercising, and your legs or arms might feel cool to the touch. Severe peripheral artery disease can lead to poor healing of skin injuries and ulcers. These cuts and ulcers can develop gangrene and require limb amputation.
Jan. 31, 2015
- Neschis DG. Clinical features, diagnosis, and natural history of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 18, 2014.
- Peripheral artery disease. The Merck Manual Professional Edition. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular_disorders/peripheral_arterial_disorders/peripheral_arterial_disease.html. Accessed Nov. 18, 2014.
- White C. Intermittent claudication. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;356:1241.
- Rooke TW, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA focused update of the guideline for the management of patients with peripheral artery disease (updating the 2005 guideline). Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2011;58:2020.
- Rudisill HM, et al. Effective therapies for intermittent claudication. American Family Physician. 2011;84:699.
- Vodnala D, et al. Medical management of the patient with intermittent claudication. Cardiology Clinics. 2011;39:363.
- Nordanstig J, et al. Improved quality of life after 1 year with an invasive versus a noninvasive treatment strategy in claudicants: One-year results of the Invasive Revascularization or Not in Intermittent Claudication (IRONIC) Trial. Circulation. 2014;130:939.
- Mazari FAK, et al. Randomized clinical trial of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, supervised exercise and combined treatment for intermittent claudication due to femoropopliteal arterial disease. British Journal of Surgery. 2012;99:39.