Expert answers

Symptoms

July 06, 2017
References
  1. Hives. American Academy of Dermatology. http://www.aad.org/dermatology-a-to-z/diseases-and-treatments/e---h/hives. Accessed April 25, 2017.
  2. Hives (urticaria). American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http://www.acaai.org/allergist/allergies/Types/skin-allergies/hives/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed April 25, 2017.
  3. Khan DA. Chronic urticaria: Standard management and patient education. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 25, 2017.
  4. Goldsmith LA, et al., eds. Urticaria and angioedema. In: Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed April 25, 2017.
  5. Khan DA. Chronic urticaria: Treatment of refractory symptoms. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 25, 2017.
  6. Bernstein JA, et al., eds. The diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticarial: 2014 update. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2014;133:1270.
  7. Darlenski R, et al. Chronic urticaria as a systemic disease. Clinics in Dermatology. 2014;32:420.
  8. Casale TB. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. 2014;2:118.