Risk factors for cervical cancer include:
Jan. 31, 2015
- Many sexual partners. The greater your number of sexual partners — and the greater your partner's number of sexual partners — the greater your chance of acquiring HPV.
- Early sexual activity. Having sex at an early age increases your risk of HPV.
- Other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Having other STIs — such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV/AIDS — increases your risk of HPV.
- A weak immune system. You may be more likely to develop cervical cancer if your immune system is weakened by another health condition and you have HPV.
- Smoking. Smoking is associated with squamous cell cervical cancer.
- What you need to know about cervical cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/cervix. Accessed July 3, 2014.
- Lentz GM, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 3, 2014.
- Frumovitz M. Invasive cervical cancer: Epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Sept. 30, 2014.
- Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 3, 2014.
- Feldman S, et al. Screening for cervical cancer: Rationale and recommendations. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Sept. 30, 2014.
- Saslow D, et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2012;137:516.
- De Los Santos JF, et al. Management of early stage cervical cancer. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Sept. 30, 2014.
- Cervical cancer. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed July 3, 2014.
- De Los Santos JF, et al. Management of locally advanced cervical cancer. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Oct. 1, 2014.
- Genital HPV infection: Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm. Accessed Oct. 20, 2014.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 7, 2014.
- Laughlin-Tommaso SK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 2, 2014.
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