Researchers estimate that only 20 percent of people with celiac disease may receive a diagnosis.
Doctors may order two blood tests to help diagnose celiac disease.
- Serology testing looks for antibodies in your blood. Elevated levels of certain antibody proteins indicate an immune reaction to gluten.
- Genetic testing for human leukocyte antigens (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8) can be used to rule out celiac disease.
If the results of these tests indicate celiac disease, your doctor may order an endoscopy to view your small intestine and to take a small tissue sample (biopsy) to analyze for damage to the villi.
It's important to be tested for celiac disease before trying a gluten-free diet. Eliminating gluten from your diet may change the results of blood tests so that they appear to be normal.
Aug. 17, 2016
- Ludvigsson JF, et al. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms. Gut. 2013;62:43.
- Ludvigsson JF, et al. Diagnosis and management of adult coeliac disease: Guidelines from the British Society of Gastroenterology. Gut. 2014;63:1210.
- Celiac disease. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/celiac-disease/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed Feb. 5, 2016.
- Ferri FF. Celiac disease. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 4, 2016.
- Kliegman RM, et al. Disorders of malabsorption. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 4, 2016.
- Green PHR, et al. Celiac disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2015;35:1099.
- Feldman M, et al. Celiac disease. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 4, 2016.
- Catassi C, et al. World Perspective and Celiac Disease Epidemiology. Digestive Diseases. 2015;33:141.
- Snyder MR, et al. Celiac disease: Advances in diagnosis. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology. 2016;12:449.
- Cook AJ. AllScripts EPSi. Rochester, Minn. Feb. 8, 2016.
- McCarville JL, et al. Pharmacological approaches in celiac disease. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 2015;25:7.
- U.S. News best hospitals 2015-2016. U.S. News & World Report. http://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/rankings/gastroenterology-and-gi-surgery. Accessed April 6, 2016.
- Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Celiac disease. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2007.
- Celiac disease. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/. Accessed April 7, 2016.
- Rishi AR, et al. Refractory celiac disease. Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2016;10:537.
- AskMayoExpert. Human Leukocyte Antigen Testing (Adult). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
- Murray JA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 21, 2016.