Regular checkups can identify cavities and other dental conditions before they cause troubling symptoms and lead to more-serious problems. The sooner you seek care, the better your chances of reversing the earliest stages of tooth decay and preventing its progression. If a cavity is treated before it starts causing pain, you probably won't need extensive treatment.
Treatment of cavities depends on how severe they are and your particular situation. Treatment options include:
- Fluoride treatments. If your cavity just started, a fluoride treatment may help restore your tooth's enamel and can sometimes reverse a cavity in the very early stages. Professional fluoride treatments contain more fluoride than the amount found in tap water, toothpaste and mouth rinses. Fluoride treatments may be liquid, gel, foam or varnish that's brushed onto your teeth or placed in a small tray that fits over your teeth.
- Fillings. Fillings, also called restorations, are the main treatment option when decay has progressed beyond the earliest stage. Fillings are made of various materials, such as tooth-colored composite resins, porcelain or dental amalgam that is a combination of several materials.
- Crowns. For extensive decay or weakened teeth, you may need a crown — a custom-fitted covering that replaces your tooth's entire natural crown. Your dentist drills away all the decayed area and enough of the rest of your tooth to ensure a good fit. Crowns may be made of gold, high strength porcelain, resin, porcelain fused to metal or other materials.
- Root canals. When decay reaches the inner material of your tooth (pulp), you may need a root canal. This is a treatment to repair and save a badly damaged or infected tooth instead of removing it. The diseased tooth pulp is removed. Medication is sometimes put into the root canal to clear any infection. Then the pulp is replaced with a filling.
- Tooth extractions. Some teeth become so severely decayed that they can't be restored and must be removed. Having a tooth pulled can leave a gap that allows your other teeth to shift. If possible, consider getting a bridge or a dental implant to replace the missing tooth.
July 19, 2017
- Caries. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/dental-disorders/common-dental-disorders/caries. Accessed March 3, 2017.
- Dental caries (tooth decay). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/hygiene/disease/dental_caries.html. Accessed March 3, 2017.
- Water fluoridation basics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/basics/index.htm. Accessed March 3, 2017.
- About dental amalgam fillings. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/DentalProducts/DentalAmalgam/ucm171094.htm. Accessed March 4, 2017.
- Dental sealants prevent cavities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/dental-sealants/. Accessed March 3, 2017.
- The tooth decay process: How to reverse it and avoid a cavity. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/OralHealthInformation/ChildrensOralHealth/ToothDecayProcess.htm#. Accessed March 3, 2017.
- Root canals. American Dental Association. http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/r/root-canals. Accessed March 4, 2017.
- Cavities. American Dental Association. http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/c/cavities. Accessed March 3, 2017.
- Anorexia nervosa. American Dental Association. http://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/anorexia-nervosa. Accessed March 4, 2017.
- AskMayoExpert. Dental caries. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2017.
- Dry mouth. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/DryMouth/DryMouth.htm#. Accessed March 4, 2017.
- Nutrition: What you eat affects your teeth. American Dental Association. http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/nutrition/food-tips. Accessed March 4, 2017.
- Wright JT, et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants. Journal of the American Dental Association. 2016;147:672.
- Salinas TJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 17, 2017.