Although the precise cause of catatonic schizophrenia isn't known, certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering catatonic schizophrenia, including:
- Having a family history of schizophrenia
- Exposure to viruses while in the womb
- Poor nutrition while in the womb
- Stressful life circumstances
- Older paternal age
- Taking psychoactive drugs during adolescence
Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia typically develop between the teenage years and the mid-30s.
Dec. 17, 2010
- Schizophrenia. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. http://www.psychiatryonline.com. Accessed Sept. 29, 2010.
- Schizophrenia. Skodol AE, et al. Specific personality disorders. In: Hales RE, et al., eds. The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2008. http://www.psychiatryonline.com. Accessed Sept. 29, 2010.
- Jibson MD. Schizophrenia: Clinical presentation, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Sept. 29, 2010.
- Gejman PV, et al. The role of genetics in the etiology of schizophrenia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2010;33:3.
- Schizophrenia. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/complete-publication.shtml.Accessed Sept. 29, 2010.
- Jibson MD. Schizophrenia: Diagnostic evaluation and treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Sept. 29, 2010.
- Huey LY, et al. Families and schizophrenia: The view from advocacy. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2007;30:549.
- Rathod SR, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy for schizophrenia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2010;33:3.
- Staying well when you have a mental health condition. Mental Health America. http://www.nmha.org/go/mental-health-month/staying-well-when-you-have-a-mental-illness. Accessed Sept. 29, 2010.
- Daniels J. Catatonia: Clinical aspects and neurobiological correlates. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2009;21:371.
- Thirthalli J, et al. Does catatonic schizophrenia improve faster with electroconvulsive therapy than other subtypes of schizophrenia? The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 2009;10:772.
- Rosebush PI, et al. Catatonia and its treatment. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2010;362:239.
- Hall-Flavin DK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 14, 2010.