Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
Cardiac catheterization is used as a test for some heart conditions and as a procedure to treat some types of heart disease. Find out more.
Treatments and drugs
A pacemaker can correct a heartbeat that's too slow. Find out the risks, results and recovery time of the procedure to implant a pacemaker.
Having a ventricular assist device (VAD) can help you survive while waiting for a heart transplant, or can serve as a long-term treatment for heart failure. Find out more.
March 17, 2015
- Longo DL, et al. Cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Feb. 2, 2015.
- What is cardiomyopathy? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cm/printall-index.html. Accessed Feb. 3, 2015.
- Cooper LT. Definition and classification of the cardiomyopathies. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 4, 2015.
- Yancy CW, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2013;128:e240.
- Gersh BJ, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2011;58:e212.
- Colucci WS. Evaluation of the patient with heart failure or cardiomyopathy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 2, 2015.
- Sisakian H. Cardiomyopathies: Evolution of pathogenesis concepts and potential for new therapies. World Journal of Cardiology. 2014;6:478.
- McKenna WJ. Treatment and prognosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 4, 2015.
- Prevention and treatment of cardiomyopathy. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/Cardiomyopathy/Prevention-and-Treatment-of-Cardiomyopathy_UCM_444176_Article.jsp. Accessed Feb. 5, 2015.
- Why arrhythmia matters. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Arrhythmia/WhyArrhythmiaMatters/Why-Arrhythmia-Matters_UCM_002023_Article.jsp. Accessed Feb. 5, 2015.
- How are arrhythmias treated? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/arr/treatment. Accessed Feb. 5, 2015.
- Mankad R (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 4, 2015.