In mitral valve stenosis, the mitral valve is narrowed, obstructing blood flow between the chambers on the left side of the heart.
Lifestyle and home remedies
The usual advice is eight hours a night, but many factors, such as age and genetics, influence how much shut-eye you need.
It might be someone else's smoke, but the risks are yours. Consider simple steps for avoiding secondhand smoke.
Fatigue can signal many things. Here are some tips to help you decipher why you're wiped out and to regain your energy.
Tests and diagnosis
Apr. 01, 2014
- What is bronchitis? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/brnchi. Accessed Nov. 14, 2013.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 14, 2013.
- Bronchitis (Chest cold). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/uri/bronchitis.html. Accessed Nov. 14, 2013.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2014: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 14, 2013.
- Rosenow EC (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 25, 2013.
- Bartlett JG, et al. Management of infection in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 14, 2013.
- Tintinalli JE, et al. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=40. Accessed Nov. 14, 2013.
- Rohren CH (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 9, 2013.
- Celli BR. Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 14, 2013.
- Symptom relief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/symptom-relief.html. Accessed Nov. 14, 2013.
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