Complications of a brain AVM include:
Mar. 21, 2014
Bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). Walls of the affected arteries and veins may become thin or weak. An AVM puts extreme pressure on these walls because no capillaries are available to slow down the blood flow. This may result in bleeding into the brain (a hemorrhage).
A very small (microscopic) hemorrhage causes limited damage to surrounding tissues and is unlikely to produce noticeable symptoms. A larger hemorrhage, however, can cause brain damage. It is known as an intracerebral hemorrhage when bleeding occurs in the brain tissue.
Reduced oxygen to brain tissue. With an AVM, blood bypasses the network of capillaries and flows directly from arteries to veins. Blood rushes quickly through the altered path because blood isn't slowed down by channels of smaller blood vessels.
Surrounding brain tissues can't easily absorb oxygen from the fast-flowing blood. Without enough oxygen, brain tissues weaken or may die off completely. This results in stroke-like symptoms, such as difficulty speaking, weakness, numbness, vision loss or severe unsteadiness.
- Thin or weak blood vessels. An AVM puts extreme pressure on the thin and weak walls of the blood vessels. A bulge in a blood vessel wall (aneurysm) may develop and become susceptible to rupture.
Brain damage. As you grow, your body may recruit more arteries to supply blood to the fast-flowing AVM. As a result, some AVMs enlarge, which displaces or compresses portions of the brain. This may prevent protective fluids from flowing freely around the hemispheres of the brain.
If fluid builds up, it can push brain tissue up against the skull (hydrocephalus).
- Arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions of the central nervous system fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/avms/detail_avms.htm. Accessed Sept. 4, 2013.
- What is an arteriovenous malformation? http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/HemorrhagicBleeds/What-Is-an-Arteriovenous-Malformation-AVM_UCM_310099_Article.jsp. American Stroke Association. Accessed Sept. 6, 2013.
- Singer RJ. Brain arteriovenous malformations. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 6, 2013.
- Neurological diagnostic tests and procedures. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/misc/diagnostic_tests.htm. Accessed Sept. 10, 2013.
- Riggin EA. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 16, 2013.
- Brown RD (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 11, 2013.
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